AIOU 8602 B.ed Assignment-2

Education Assessment and Evaluation (8602) B.ed 1.5 Years Spring, 2017. Here you will find updated assignments of Allama Iqbal University. AIOU Latest assignments 2019. B.ed Assignments 2019. AIOU spring assignments 2019. AIOU autumn assignments 2019.

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Education Assessment and Evaluation (8602) B.ed 1.5 Years Spring, 2017.

Q.1. Define Reliability. Explain the types of Reliability with examples. Also discuss the usability of each type for the development of assessment tool. (20)

Reliability is the consistency of a measure. In educational testing, reliability refers to the confidence that the test score will be the same across repeated administrations of the test. There is a close relation between the construct of reliability and the construct of validity.

Many sources discuss how a test can have reliability without validity and that a test cannot have validity without reliability. In the theoretical sense, these statements are true but not in any practical sense.

A test is designed to be reliable and valid, consistent, and accurate. Practical conceptualizations of reliability cannot be discussed separately from examples with validity.


Reliability without validity would be similar to an archer consistently hitting the target in the same place but missing the bull’s eye by a foot. The archer’s aim is reliable because it is predictable but it is not accurate.

The archer’s aim never hits what it is expected to hit. In this analogy, validity without reliability would be the arrows hitting the target in a haphazard manner but close to the bull’s eye and centering around the bull’s eye. In this second example, it can be seen that the validity is evidence that the archer is aiming at the right place.

However, it also demonstrates that, even though the reliability is low, there is still some degree of reliability. That is, at least the arrows are consistently hitting the target.

In addition, if the arrows are centered around the bull’s eye, the error of one aim leading too far to the right is balanced by another aim leading too far to the left.

Looking at the unpainted backside of the target’s canvas, someone would be able to identify where the bull’s eye was by averaging the distance of all the shots from the bull’s eye.

Reliability of a test is an important selling point for publishers of standardized test, especially in high stakes testing. If an institute asserts that its instrument can identify children who qualify for a special education program, the users of that test would hope that it has a high reliability.

Otherwise, some children requiring the special education may not be identified, whereas others who do not require the special education may be unnecessarily assigned to the special education program.

Situations perceived as low-stakes Testing

Even in situations perceived as low-stakes testing, such as classroom testing, reliability and validity are serious concerns. Classroom teachers are concerned that the tests they administer are truly reflective of their students’ abilities.

If a teacher administered a test that was reliable but not valid, it would not have much practical use. An example would be a teacher in a grade-school history class administering, as a midterm exam, a standardized test from a reputable publisher.

If that exam was suggested by the test developer as the final exam, the results would most likely be reliable but not valid. The test results would be reliable because they would most likely reflect the students’ rank order in class performance.

However, the test would not be valid as most students would not be ready for half of the material being tested. If the grade-school history teacher administered as a midterm exam a standardized test recommended by the test developer as a midterm exam for the appropriate grade level, the test could be considered valid.

However, if the students (for some strange reason) did not receive uniform instruction in grade-appropriate history, the test would most likely not be reliable. From these examples, it is clear that it is easier to increase the validity of a reliable measure than to increase the reliability of an otherwise valid measure.

The reliable archer could be trained, little by little, to move the aim in the direction of the bull’s eye. However, the target could be moved over one foot, so that the bull’s eye is at the spot on the target that the archer usually hits.

The teacher could take the time necessary (half a school year) to teach the students what they need to know to pass the valid final exam.

(This is similar to training the archer to shoot in the right direction) Another solution for the classroom situation would be for the teacher to adapt the test items in the exam.

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